Notes to the text:
to forecast(ed) the weather – прогнозувати погоду
to have one thing in common – мати щось спільне / спільну річ
accurate – точний
complicated – складний
weather balloons – метеозонд, кулька-пілот
altitude – висота (над рівнем моря)
satellite – супутник, супутникова антена
to be processed by computer – обробляти на комп’ютері
to take into account – узяти до уваги
coast – узбережжя
basic equipment – базове (основне) обладнання
wind meter – флюгер
to get worse – погіршуватися
to beat (beat; beaten) the experts – перемогти експертів
When the wind is in the west, the weather is always best.
When the wind’s in the south, the rain’s in its mouth.
Have you heard sayings like these before? Or INTRODUCTORY TEXT. to forecast(ed) the weather – прогнозувати погоду have you heard that when cows lie down it’s going to rain? May be you’ve heard that a sunny Christmas Day means we’re going to have a warm Easter. Many cultures have traditional ideas about how to forecast the weather and they all have one thing in common: they are not very accurate. Most of them are about as accurate as saying that the weather tomorrow will be more or less the same as today. The weather is too complicated to be forecasted easily.
How do meteorologists go about trying to forecast the weather? The INTRODUCTORY TEXT. to forecast(ed) the weather – прогнозувати погоду first thing they need is information, and lots of it. Data is constantly collected from weather stations around the world. Weather balloons tell us what is happening at high altitude. Satellitesgive us images of cloud cover and wind direction. All this information is processed by computer and combined with information about the normal climate of a region to produce the forecast. Even so, we can only accurately forecast the weather for the next couple of days.
Can’t we amateurs forecast the weather at all, then? Yes, we can, but to be a great amateur meteorologist you need to INTRODUCTORY TEXT. to forecast(ed) the weather – прогнозувати погоду do some of the things the experts do. First of all, collect your information. You need to know about the climate in the area where you live. What’s a typical summer like? How much rain normally falls in October? If your area never gets fog in the summer, then a forecast of fog in July is unlikely to be accurate. The next thing to be taken into accountis local geography. Are there any mountains nearby? They could affect the wind. Are you by the coast? That could affect rainfall. You also need some basic equipment: a good thermometer, a barometer INTRODUCTORY TEXT. to forecast(ed) the weather – прогнозувати погоду to measure pressure in the atmosphere and, if possible, a wind meter.
Then it’s a question of using your eyes, and even your ears. Listen to the radio. Is there a lot of static? With the fall of atmospheric pressure the weather will get worse. Go outside and listen. Do sounds seem clearer than usual? Is there a kind of ring around the sun or moon? It could mean that it’s going to rain. Is your barometer rising and do the clouds seem to be getting higher? It probably means that the weather is clearing INTRODUCTORY TEXT. to forecast(ed) the weather – прогнозувати погоду up. With a little practice, your forecasts will become more accurate one day.
Making your own forecasts can be a lot of fun, and you might even beat the experts!
a) different cultures b) traditional ideas about the weather
c) most weather forecasts d) the weather on different days
a) the weather very high in the atmosphere b) the accuracy of forecasts in the past
c) the amount of clouds over an area d) the way the wind is blowing
a) the forecasts of the experts INTRODUCTORY TEXT. to forecast(ed) the weather – прогнозувати погоду b) the general patterns of weather
c) how rains affect local people d) how summer fog is caused
a) buy a lot accurate equipment b) get a good map of the area
c) make notes about changes in the weather d) live in a flat area away from the sea
a) the reading on your barometer is falling b) you can hear sound very clearly
c) low clouds start to disappear d) the moon is very bright in the sky
a) experience in forecasting b) good planning
c) time to watch the weather change d) a good memory